Calvary Church of the Nazarene Huntsville, Alabama

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Personality Disorders

ODD OR ECCENTRIC BEHAVIOR TYPE - Cluster A

Paranoid PD:

A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as

malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by

four or more of the following:

1. Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or

deceiving him

2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness

of friends or associates

3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him

4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events

5. Persistently bears grudges (i.e., unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights)

6. Perceives attacks on his character or reputation that are not apparent to others

and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack

7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or

sexual partner

Schizoid PD:

1. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted

range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early

adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more

of the following:

a. Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part

of a family

b. Almost always chooses solitary activities

c. Has little, if any, interest in sexual experiences with another person

d. Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities

e. Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives

f. Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others

g. Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity

2. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood

Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a

Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological

effects of a general medical condition.

Schizotypal PD:

1. Pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute

discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by

cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning

by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or

more of the following:

a. Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference)

b. Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is

inconsistent with subcultural norms (i.e., superstitiousness, belief in

clairvoyance, telepathy, or >sixth sense=; in children & adolescents,

bizarre fantasies or preoccupations)

c. Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions

d. Odd thinking and speech (i.e., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical,

overelaborate, or stereotyped)

e. Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation

f. Inappropriate or constricted affect

g. Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar

h. Lack of close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives

I. Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and

tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative

judgments about self

2. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood

Disorder With Psychotic Features, another Personality Disorder, or a

Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

 

DRAMATIC, EMOTIONAL, OR ERRATIC BEHAVIOR TYPE - Cluster B

Antisocial PD:

1. There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of

others occurring since the age of 15, as indicated by three or more of the following:

a. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as

indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest

b. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning

others for personal profit or pleasure

c. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

d. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights

or assaults

e. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others

f. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain

consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations

g. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing

having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

2. At least 18 yrs of age

3. Evidence of Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15:

a. Aggression to people/animals (bullies, threatens, intimidates, fights,

weapons, etc.)

b. Destruction of property (fire setting or other)

c. Deceitfulness or theft (broken into houses, >cons= others, stolen items

of nontrivial value [shoplifting, forgery, etc.])

d. Serious violations of rules (stays out at night despite parental prohibitions,

has run away from home at least twice, often truant from school)

4. Behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or a

Manic Episode

Borderline PD:

A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked by impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following:

 

1. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment

2. A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by

alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation

3. Identity disturbance: markedly & persistently unstable self-image or sense of

self

4. Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (i.e.,

spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)

5. Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior

6. Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (i.e., intense episodic

dysphoria [restlessness, mental discomfort, general unhappiness], irritability,

or anxiety usually lasting a few hours & only rarely more than a few days)

7. Chronic feelings of emptiness

8. Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (i.e., frequent

displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)

9. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms

(i.e., inability to recall important personal information, two or more distinct

personality identities/states, identity fragmentation, recurrent feelings of being

detached from one=s mental processes or body, etc.)

 

Histrionic PD:

A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following:

1. Uncomfortable in situations in which they are not the center of attention

2. Inappropriate sexual seductiveness or provocative behavior

3. Rapidly shifting & shallow expression of emotions

4. Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to oneself

5. A style of speech that is excessively impressionistic & lacking in detail

6. Self-dramatization, theatricality, & exaggerated expression of emotion

7. Easily influenced by others or circumstances

8. Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

9. Intimate relationships are rocky and unstable

10. Easily bored and constantly seeking new stimulation

11. Charming, energetic, manipulative, erratic, and demanding

12. Low frustration threshold

13. Strong dependency needs

14. Projects their own ideas onto people with whom they are involved

15. Self-centered, self-indulgent

16. Uses grandiose language to describe everyday events

17. Especially vulnerable to separation anxiety

18. Pursues a fast-paced social and romantic lifestyle (relationships start out as

ideal and end up as disasters - often dissatisfied with single attachments;

lack depth and durability)

19. Inner emptiness

20. Deny or suppress internal distress, weakness, depression or hostility

Narcissistic PD:

A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and

lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following:

1. A grandiose sense of self-importance (i.e., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior w/out commensurate achievements)

2. Preoccupied w/ fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, ideal love

3. Believes they are special and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people or institutions

4. Requires excessive admiration

5. A sense of entitlement (i.e., unrealistic expectations of especially favorable

treatment or automatic compliance w/ their expectations)

6. Interpersonally exploitative (i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve their own ends)

7. Lacks empathy (i.e., unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others)

8. Often envious of others or believes that others are envious of them

9. Arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes

 

FEARFUL OR ANXIOUS BEHAVIOR TYPE - Cluster C

Avoidant PD:

A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the following:

1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection

2. Unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked

3. Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of fear of being shamed or ridiculed

4. Preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations

5. Inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy

6. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others

7. Unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing

Dependent PD:

A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five or more of the following:

1. Difficulty making everyday decisions w/out an excessive amount of advice & reassurance from others

2. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of life

3. Difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support/approval

4. Difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy

5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant

6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for self

7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends

8. Unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of self

Obsessive-Compulsive PD:

A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental & interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the following:

1. Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost

2. Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (i.e., unable to complete a project because their own overly strict standards are not met)

3. Overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)

4. Excessively devoted to work or productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)

5. Unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value

6. Reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly their ways of doing things

7. Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes

8. Shows rigidity and stubbornness

Passive-Aggressive PD:

A pervasive pattern of passive resistance to demands for adequate social and occupational performance, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by at least five of the following:

1. Procrastinates (puts off things that need to be done so that deadlines are not met)

2. Becomes sulky, irritable, or argumentative when asked to do something they do not want to do

3. Seems to work deliberately slowly or to do a bad job on tasks that he/she does not want to do

4. Protests, without justification, that others make unreasonable demands on him/her

5. Avoids obligations by claiming to have >forgotten=

6. Believes he/she is doing a much better job than others think he/she is doing

7. Resents useful suggestions from others about how he/she could be more productive

8. Obstructs the efforts of others (in group work) by failing to do his/her fair share of the work

9. Unreasonably criticizes or scorns people in positions of authority

 

(This information is taken from the DSM - Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - American Psychiatric Association)

 

 

 

Content copyright July 2010 jmhall. All rights reserved.